Specific Learning Disorder with an impairment in reading is characterized by challenges in: word reading accuracy, reading rate or fluency, and/or reading comprehension.
Specific Learning Disorder with an impairment in written expression is characterized by challenges in: spelling accuracy, grammar and punctuation accuracy, and clarity or organization of written expression.
Specific Learning Disorder with an impairment in math is characterized by challenges in: number sense, memorization of math facts, accurate or fluent calculation, and/or accurate math reasoning.
As stated in the DSM-5 TR, "Dyslexia is an alternative term used to refer to a pattern of learning difficulties characterized by problems with accurate or fluent word recognition, poor decoding, and poor spelling abilities."
The current International Dyslexia Association (IDA) definition for dyslexia is as follows:
Dyslexia is a specific learning disability that is neurological in origin. It is characterized by difficulties with accurate and/or fluent word recognition and by poor spelling and decoding abilities. These difficulties typically result from a deficit in the phonological component of language that is often unexpected in relation to other cognitive abilities and the provision of effective classroom instruction. Secondary consequences may include problems in reading comprehension and reduced reading experience that can impede growth of vocabulary and background knowledge.
-Adopted by the IDA Board of Directors, Nov. 12, 2002. This Definition is also used by the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD).
Many dyslexic people are gifted in areas that are controlled by the right hemisphere of the brain, such as art, music, and athletics.